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Over the years, anthropological research conducted in the Igbo heartland has led to the "re-discovery" (from a European perspective) of an ancient, sophisticated Igbo civilization centered around the historic town of Igbo-Ukwu (in modern-day Anambra state) in the mid to late centuries of the first millennium CE.

Unearthed at the Igbo-Ukwu excavation sites were various pieces of evidence suggesting the existence of a highly-developed and complex society. Well-crafted wares, ceremonial objects, and metal castings (such as this bronze pendant shown in the picture) suggest an in-depth knowledge of metallurgy, chemistry, and other natural sciences.

The lines that run across the face of the character on the pendant resemble 'ichi' scarifications (patterns which were made across the faces of Ozo-titled men), further supporting the existence of a well-developed civilization.



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